FFPE is a form of preservation and preparation of biopsy specimens, which is helpful for inspection, experimental research and diagnosis/drug development. The tissue sample is first preserved by fixing it in formaldehyde (also known as formalin) to preserve the proteins and important structures in the tissue. Next, embed it in a paraffin block; this makes it easier to cut the slices of the required size and mount them on a microscope slide for inspection. The process begins with obtaining a tissue sample.
Tissues are collected in various forms, such as from diseased and normal individual donors. Another method is to match a pair of samples from the same person. This is to select diseased and healthy tissues from a person. Oncologists often compare the initial (or primary) tumor with a sample of a more distant metastatic tumor from a single patient. In some cases, four samples are obtained: healthy and diseased tissues for FFPE purposes and freezing purposes.
The preparation method usually depends on the requirements outlined by the doctor or researcher requesting the FFPE tissue, ranging from the size of the specifications, the purpose of the tissue, and even the way the tissue is cut. For example, muscles can be cut along the "texture" of muscle fibers, or through them. A certified medical pathologist will be involved in the preparation of the sample to ensure that the procedure is completed accurately and to evaluate the quality after the sample is completed.
FFPE tissue is often used in a technique called immunohistochemistry (IHC), in which tissue sections are mounted on glass slides and then soaked in a solution containing antibodies that bind to specific proteins or structures. A stain can then be used to visualize the antibody, which will show which proteins or structures are present in the sample and their location. This information is very important for doctors looking for signs of diseases such as cancer or Alzheimer's disease. The information obtained from IHC is also critical to most cancer research projects conducted in today's laboratories.
FFPE tissue is the key to oncology research or cancer research, because the preserved tumor tissue shows a very typical morphology. Researchers often use FFPE tissue to find specific proteins. The presence of these proteins can be used to diagnose and evaluate whether therapeutic antibodies may be useful for treatment. The use of FFPE tissue is essential for studying blood and related diseases. Hematology has paved the way for the discovery of many treatments for diseases caused by abnormalities in blood and its components. Research related to bone marrow is applicable to toxicology, tissue regeneration and genetics.
Future research will utilize FFPE tissue as a source of DNA, RNA, and protein from archived and recorded materials. The quality of the FFPE organization is critical to this work. Even the most well-preserved tissues will have partially degraded DNA and RNA, as well as normally inactive proteins.
Creative Bioarray offers a variety of FFPE tissues that are difficult to obtain and have tissue sources in different formats, such as single slides, panels, and arrays containing up to hundreds of sections. Clinical history and demographic information for all organizations are available. FFPE tissue is prepared using the highest standards in the field. The organization undergoes strict quality control measures to provide reliable and consistent samples in every preparation, including the use of H&E stained glass slides to ensure excellent products.
Creative Bioarray also creates custom arrays based on customer specific needs, including purchasing rare tissues and fixing them on glass slides. Customization services also include isolation of DNA, RNA, or protein from the tissue used to create a customized array.